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Appendix 3

Albuquerque, New Mexico

Scott Cameron, New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty; Kate Crofts, "Proposed law targets aggressive beggars." The Daily Lobo. October 31, 2003; Ed Asher, "Man beats panhandling ticket." The Albuquerque Tribune. December 19, 2003; "Joy Junction Director Applauds Chavez Crackdown on Panhandling: Bill to be Brought before City Council." Joy Junction Press Release. January 1, 2004; Ed Asher, "Hey, buddy, spare me: City Council passes ban on ‘aggressive’ panhandling." The Albuquerque Tribune. January 6, 2004; Scott Cameron, "Making Homelessness a Crime." The Albuquerque Journal. January 8, 2004; "ACLU of New Mexico Wins Temporary Halt to Albuquerque’s Anti-Panhandling Ordinance." ACLU Press Release. January 16, 2004; Ryan Floersheim, "City Cleans up Nob Hill neighborhood." The Daily Lobo. February 9, 2004; Carolyn Carlson, "Handling the Panhandlers." The Albuquerque Journal. March 4, 2004; Ed Asher, "Panhandling bill under fire." The Albuquerque Tribune. March 25, 2004; Associated Press, "City council approves panhandling ordinance." KRQE May 4, 2004.

Amarillo, Texas

Joe Chapman, "When rights collide: Park users, homeowners have different views." Amarillo Globe News. June 14, 2004.

Anchorage, Alaska

Hilary Morgan, Homeward Bound; Scott Christiansen, "FLAHSLIGHT: No begging, please." The Anchorage Press. July 22, 2004; Anne Aurand, "Panhandlers given limits by new rule; Legal consequences: Aggressive begging may bring fine, rehab, or service." Anchorage Daily News. August 18, 2004; Associated Press, "Anchorage toughens panhandling law." Fairbanks Daily News-Miner. August 19, 2004.

Asheville, North Carolina

Brian Postelle, "A long way home: Anti-homelessness initiative takes baby steps" Mountain Express. May 26–June 1, 2004; Asheville Homeless Network, "Applicable laws and Policies in Buncombe County, NC." June 28, 2004.

Ashland, Oregon

Andrew Scot Bolsinger, "Police see the city’s other side." Ashland Daily Tidings. April 16, 2004.

Athens, Georgia

Mary O’Toole, Director, Northeast Georgia Homeless Coalition; Ronell Smith, "Insert coin to help out the homeless? Plan floated for meters to reduce panhandling." Athens Banner-Herald. February 11, 2003; Associated Press, "Athens installs donation meters to help homeless." Macon Telegraph. September 5, 2003; Ronell Smith, "New Meters Designed to Reduce Panhandling." Athens Banner-Herald. September 5, 2003.

Atlanta, Georgia

Mike Casey, Open Door Community; Scott Henry, "Writing's on the wall: Atlanta goes on offensive against graffiti, panhandling." Creative Loafing Magazine. July 31, 2003; Stephanie Siek, "Atlanta considers banning begging: City Council proposal would cover downtown, airport, MARTA stations." Atlanta Journal-Constitution. August 12, 2003; Ed Loring, "The Struggle for Woodruff Park." Hospitality. September 2003; Colin Campbell, "Hard to believe, but banishment is legal in Georgia." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. October 23, 2003; Sarah Rubenstein, "City puts wage, panhandling on back burner." Atlanta Business Chronicle. October 24, 2003; Ty Tagami, "City Council candidates put other on the hot seat." Atlanta Journal-Constitution. August 3, 2004; Steve Visser, "Unwelcome Wake Up Call. Clean sweep includes homeless." The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. August 20, 2004.

Atlantic City, New Jersey

Bill Southrey, Atlantic City Rescue Mission.

Augusta, Georgia

Lynne Griever, Georgia Task Force for the Homeless.

Austin, Texas

"No Camping Court Victory." Austin Advocate. December, 2003; Ann Hatchitt, "Charitable groups fight panhandling." Austin Business Journal. January 14, 2004; Brian Chasnoff, "Aiding Austin’s Homeless Community." Daily Texan. January 27, 2004; Kayte VanScoy, "City Council Ponders Repeal of Flawed Camping Ban: Still Homeless." The Austin Chronicle. August 20, 2004.

Avondale, Illinois

Johnathon E. Briggs, "’Renegade project’ leaves ruins in heart of Avondale." Chicago Tribune. August 3, 2004; Johnathon E. Briggs, "Avondale eyesore torn down: Neighborhood 'abandominium' bites the dust." Chicago Tribune. August 11, 2004.

Bakersfield, California

Walter Williams, Greater Bakersfield Legal Assistance, Inc.; Bakersfield Economic and Community Development Department, "Memorandum: Community Services Committee Report Regarding International Square."

Baltimore, Maryland

"Downtown Partnership to form Safe Street Coalition." Baltimore Business Journal. January 22, 2004; Ezra Fieser, "Neighborhoods Fight Baltimore Homeless Bill." The Daily Record. March 31, 2004; Ginny Graham, "Proposed bill would fine homeless." The Loyola Greyhound. April 6, 2004; The Associated Press, "Baltimore City Could Fine Panhandlers." WBAL Channel 11 News, April 20, 2004; Tom Pelton, "Plan affecting vagrants halted." The Baltimore Sun/KnowledgePlex. April 20, 2004.

Beaverton, Oregon

Israel Bayer, "Flyers Fare Well in Civil Suit: Beaverton, State Officials Settle on Issue of Panhandling Along Highway Exit Ramps." Street Roots, January 1, 2004.

Berkeley, California

Terry Messman, "Unconstitutional as well as inhumane: Report documents widespread abuse of homeless people in Berkeley." Street Spirit. June 2004.

Billings, Montana

James Hagengruber, "Downtown panhandlers get more aggressive." Billings Gazette. October 9, 2003; Becky Shay, "Empire’s enigma: City can do little to solve bar’s problems, officials say." Billings Gazette. May 4, 2004.

Birmingham, Alabama

Barnett Wright, "Hendricks withdraws homeless ordinance." Birmingham News. October 28, 2003.

Boston, Massachusetts

Rufus Goodwin, contributor to Boston’s street newspaper, "Spare Change," and author of the novel "Soul Street;" Ric Kahn, "Many among city's homeless steer clear of Fleet Center." The Boston Globe. July 30, 2004; Ric Kahn, "DNC tourists can't spare a dime." The Boston Globe. August 1, 2004; Donovan Slack, "Often, it’s stop and no: Solicitors plying city intersections. The Boston Globe. August 24, 2004; Samuel Scott, "Proposed City Panhandling Ban Won’t Affect Most Homeless." Spare Change News. September 16–29, 2004.

Boulder, Colorado

Greg Harmes, Boulder Shelter for the Homeless; "City Bans Roadside Begging." Daily Camera/Clean & Safe Worldwide. December 19, 2003.

Bradenton, Florida

Tom Washburn, Manatee Homeless Coalition; Mitra Malek, "Proposal would give homeless few options; Bradenton considers making sleeping outside without permission illegal." Sarasota Herald-Tribune. January 14, 2004; Vin Mannix, "Being poor should not be a crime." The Bradenton Herald. January 23, 2004; "An Eyesore No More?" Bay News 9. July 21, 2004.

Buffalo, New York

Bill O’Connell and Kelly Bobbit, Crisis Services Homeless Program Supervisor, Crisis Services.

Charleston, South Carolina

Gayle Smith of Crisis Services.

Charlotte, North Carolina

Stephen Baldwin, "Instead of hiding the homeless, help them." Charlotte Observer. November 20, 2003.

Cheyenne, Wyoming

Virginia Sellner, Wyoming Coalition for the Homeless.

Chicago, Illinois

"Chicago to pay panhandlers $99,000 in civil rights case." Street Roots. January 16, 2004; Dan Mihalopoulos, "City panhandling law advances." Chicago Tribune. September 28, 2004; Carlos Sadovi, "Pushy panhandlers targeted." Chicago Tribune. September 30, 2004.

Cincinnati, Ohio

Elizabeth Linville, Greater Cincinnati Coalition for the Homeless; Jimmy Heath, "Cincinnati City Council Votes to Extend Panhandling Registration." Street Vibes. June 2004; Elizabeth Linville, "Panhandling for Justice spreads awareness about homelessness," Street Vibes. June 2004.

Clearwater, Florida

Richard Hruska, Homeless Advocate.

Cleveland, Ohio

Brian Davis, Director, Northeast Ohio Coalition for the Homeless and editor of the Homeless Grapevine street newspaper, 2003--2004.

Colorado Springs, Colorado

Steve Handon, Mesa House.

Columbus, Ohio

Kent Beittel, Open Shelter.

Corpus Christi, Texas

"Business Owners Turn to Authorities for Help with Homeless." Corpus Christi Caller-Times. May 28, 2004.

Covington, Kentucky

Cindy Schroeder, "Campers to take case to the feds: Permit denied; activists move to federal building." The Cincinnati Enquirer. October 7, 2003; Jimmy Heath, "Homeless Men receive Settlement from City of Covington." Streetvibes. February 2004.

Dallas, Texas

James Waghorne "City of Dallas: Homeless Hate Crimes & Victimization;" "Backed off a corner" The Dallas Morning News. November 11, 2003; Jim Schutze, "Homeless Cleansing: Proposed "intake center" for the homeless looks scary." The Dallas Observer. February 26, 2004; Cliff Despres, "Crime or cry for help? Police propose banning what has evoked complaints, compassion." The Dallas Morning News. July 18, 2004; "CBS 11 Investigates Panhandling Enforcement." CBS 11. July 20, 2004; Steven Gray, "Beeping, braking carts provide a challenge for would-be thieves." Wall Street Journal. August 2, 2004; David Flick, "About Downtown: It’ll be safety first for Ambassadors: Volunteers’ look, mission to change in downtown Dallas." The Dallas Morning News. August 7, 2004; "A Simpler Way to Donate Online to Fill the Boot." NBC 5. August 13, 2004; Jim Schutze, "Boxcar Miller: The floating homeless encampment settles in at Dallas City Hall." The Dallas Observer. August 26, 2004; Sarah Dodd, "A homeless roundup puts six people in jail." CBS 11. August 26, 2004.

Davenport, Iowa

Kate Ridge, John Lewis Community Services Executive Director.

Dayton, Ohio

James Hannah, Associated Press, "Homeless camps perturb cities: Concerns are for health, safety." Dayton Daily News. December 13, 2003.

Daytona Beach, Florida

Tania de Luzuriaga, "Homeless face more rules." Orlando Sentinel. September 3, 2003; Jeff Libby, "Daytona’s homeless find closed doors: Officials say buses and vans were available to ferry people to shelter." Orlando Sentinel. August 18, 2004.

De Land, Florida

"Vote Will Decide Roadside Begging." Orlando Sentinel/Clean and Safe Worldwide. December 3, 2004; "DeLand Outlaws Panhandling." WNDB. (Date Unknown.)

Denton, Texas

Cliff Despres, "Crime or cry for help? Police propose banning what has evoked complaints, compassion." The Dallas Morning News. July 18, 2004; Cliff Despres, "Denton council bans panhandling." The Dallas Morning News. July 22, 2004; Cliff Despres, "Panhandling ban appears effective; Police: Complaints are down; business owners report less disturbance." The Dallas Morning News. August 11, 2004.

Denver, Colorado

Arch Dumenigo, "New Speak Out! And Poll: What should Denver do about homeless residents?" Denver Student Voices. March 30, 2004; Randle Loeb, "Intolerable Civil Rights Violations On Homeless People Performing Ordinary Human Activities," Denver Voice. April 2004; Israel Bayer, "Denver tent-city a stones throw away from gaining recognition." Street Roots. April 1, 2004’ "EDITORIAL: Denver looks to the streets of Philadelphia." The Denver Post. July 11, 2004; Kris Hudson, "Renovated Skyline Park opens to plaudits." The Denver Post. July 25, 2004; Charley Able, "Pushy panhandling ban: Lakewood eyeing ordinance to curb aggressive behavior." Rocky Mountain News. August 9, 2004.

Detroit, Michigan

Ed Bell, Wayne County/Detroit Coalition for the Homeless; "City Razes Homeless Man’s Shack." Homeless Grapevine. Issue #656, July 2004.

Detroit, Oregon

Roy Gault, "Campers face stricter rules at Detroit sites." The Statesman Journal. August 26, 2004.

Durham, North Carolina

"Compromise Sought on Panhandling Regulation." News Observer/Clean and Safe Worldwide. September 5, 2003; Julia Lewis, "Durham Considers Crackdown On Panhandling: Ban May Have Negative Effect on Licensed Vendors." WRAL. November 15, 2003; Steve Johns, "Durham Takes Steps to Control Panhandling: People Must Pay $20 Licensing Fee Under New Law." NBC17. November 18, 2003; Anthony Wilson, "Durham Requires License to Ask for Money on Street." Eyewitness News 11. November 18, 2003; "Beggars buy licenses to beg." News Observer/Clean and Safe Worldwide. January 7, 2004.

Eau Claire, Wisconsin

"A Problem With Panhandling: Complaints Are Up." WQOW Programming. August 3, 2004.

El Cajon, California

Brian Hazle, "El Cajon council tentatively passes ban at Judson Park." Union-Tribune. August 30, 2003; Liz Neely, "New management will handle converted motel for homeless." Union-Tribune. August 12, 2004.

El Paso, Texas

Ray Tulius, Opportunity Center and the El Paso Coalition for the Homeless; "’Fill the Boot’ Campaign Breaking the Law?" NewsChannel 9. February 22, 2004.

Elkton, Maryland

Eric Townsend, "Homeless ban fails in Elkton." Loaves & Fishes. May-June 2004.

Encinitas, California

Adam Kaye, "City eyes crackdown on illegal camping." North County Times. January 16, 2004; Adam Kaye, "Center leader wants to participate in illegal camping dialogue." North County Times. January 23, 2004; Ben Frumin, "No permit, no camping." The Coast News. February 26, 2004; Jo Moreland, "Deputies, lifeguards increase beach patrols." North County Times. August 8, 2004.

Escondido, California

Jo Moreland, "City steps up patrols at Grape Day, denies they target homeless." NC Times. August 21, 2004.

Eugene, Oregon

Tim Rockwell, First Place Family Center; Linn Antis, Eugene Mission.

Eureka Springs, Arkansas

Mary Jean Sell, "Bums will get the rush out of town." Eureka Springs Times Echo. August 24, 2004.

Fairfield, California

Ian Thompson, "City plans video surveillance in troubled parks." Daily Republic. August 24, 2004.

Fargo, North Dakota

"CrimeWatch: Chat with Police Chief Chris Magnus." Inforum. August 2, 2004.

Flagstaff, Arizona

The Associated Press, "Forest Service evicting two homeless men from cave." Tucson Citizen. March 31, 2004; Larry Hendricks, "Flagstaff's top 5 'public intoxicants.'" Arizona Daily Sun. August 22, 2004.

Fort Lauderdale, Florida

Laura Hansen, Broward Coalition for the Homeless.

Fort Myers, Florida

Grant Boxleitner, "Altamont Park full of vagrants, they say." News Press. September 22, 2004.

Fort Smith, Arkansas

"City Can Prevail Over Transient Problem." The Times Record. August 11, 2004.

Fort Worth, Texas

John Suggs, Homeless Advocate.

Frederick, Maryland

Robert Schroeder, "Proposal to remove benches criticized." The Gazette. September 18, 2003.

Fresno, California

Lisa Apper, St. Benedict Catholic Worker; Mike Rhodes, "An Outdoor Drunk Tank Topped With Razor Wire." Street Spirit. June 2004; Steven Gray, "Beeping, braking carts provide a challenge for would-be thieves." Wall Street Journal. August 2, 2004.

Gainesville, Florida

Pat Fitzpatrick, Homeless Advocate. Jennifer Wiley, Homeless Advocate; "Gainesville Supports Real Change…" City of Gainesville; "Why are people homeless." Florida Coalition for the Homeless; Tera Williams, "Handling Panhandling in Gainesville." WCJB TV 20 News. February 3, 2004; Lise Fisher, "No place to call home." The Gainesville Sun. June 17, 2004; Lise Fisher, "Homeless given Monday deadline to leave SE woods." The Gainesville Sun. June 18, 2004; "Out of sight." The Gainesville Sun. June 19, 2004; Troy Kinsey, "Clock Ticking for Homeless At Camp." WCJB TV 20 News. June 20, 2004; Greg C. Bruno, "Homeless working to vacate campsite." The Gainesville Sun. June 22, 2004; Jeff Adelson, "City forced to trim finding for social programs." The Gainesville Sun. August 3, 2004.

Glendale, Arizona

Monica Alonzo-Dunsmoor "Glendale Cracking Down on Urban Camping" The Arizona Republic. July 28, 2003.

Grand Junction, Colorado

"Grand Valley Begging Targeted." The Denver Post. July 14, 2004; Erin McIntyre, "Homeless maze: Dealing with transients costly for taxpayers." The Daily Sentinel. August 1, 2004.

Greeley, Colorado

"Panhandle ban needs social aids; Weld commissioners' plan makes sense overall." Greeley Tribune. July 29, 2004.

Hallandale, Florida

Hector Florin, "Hallandale bans street vendors, solicitors." The Miami Herald. August 4, 2004.

Havre, Montana

Krystal Spring, "Committee supports new motor home parking ordinance." Havre Daily News. August 11, 2004.

Honolulu, Hawaii

"Homeless Population Rising at Ala Moana Park: Park Users Say Some Homeless Monopolize Areas, Openly Use Drugs." The Hawaii Channel. April 20, 2004; James Gosner, "New law targets squatters." The Honolulu Advertiser." May 30, 2004; Howard Discus, "Lingle to Chamber: We need to address the homeless problem." Pacific Business News. July 16, 2004; "Honolulu’s Highway Homeless." KGMB9 Hawaii. July 27, 2004; Eloise Aguilar, "Homeless, coalition connect in Kailua." The Honolulu Advertiser. July 30, 2004; Pat Bigold, "Hawaii’s Homeless Law Fuels Tension. State to debut at 3d on list of ‘meanest’." Boston Globe. August 30, 2004; B.J. Reyes, "ACLU sues over squatters law. A lawsuit challenges the constitutionality of a state statute aimed at loitering in parks." Associated Press. September 8, 2004.

Houston, Texas

Anne Thomas, Special Projects Director for the Coalition for the Homeless of Houston/Harris County; Ron Nissimov and Justin Gest, "NO LOITERING: Midtown tries to move homeless." The Houston Chronicle. August 5, 2004.

Huntington, West Virginia

Eric Fossell, "Program addressing panhandlers, public intoxication, loiterers." Herald-Dispatch. June 10, 2004.

Idaho Falls, Idaho

Suzanne Hobbs, "Homeless Camp Concerns." NBC Newschannel 6. July 28, 2004.

Indianapolis, Indiana

Donnie Robinet and Dan Shepley. Comprehensive Homeless Intervention Program Outreach.

Ithaca, New York

Abbie Ginder, "Investigation continues into alleged attacks on homeless." News 10 Now. August 24, 2004; "Homeless allegedly attacked by Ithaca Police Officers." News 10 Now. August 24, 2004; Associated Press, "Ithaca officers suspended, investigated in homeless incident." Newsday. August 25, 2004.

Jacksonville, Florida

"Lawsuit questions city rule on alcohol." The Florida Times-Union. June, 2004; Ron Word, "Homeless men challenging Jacksonville’s Super Bowl drinking law." Associated Press. June 16, 2004.

Jeffersonville, Indiana

Barbara Anderson, Southern Indiana Housing Initiative.

Kalamazoo, Michigan

Ed Finnerty, "Woman fined for sleeping in city park." Kalamazoo Gazette. December 5, 2003.

Kansas City, Missouri

Joe Lambe, "Plan seeks ring around library." The Kansas City Star. December 24, 2003; "Kansas City 'Safe Zone' Worries Homeless Advocates." NPR. April 16, 2004; Bob Edwards, "Kansas City’s new library." NPR. April 16, 2004.

Key West, Florida

Timothy O’Hara, "Homeless ‘safe zone’ shuffle continues." Key West Citizen. January 3, 2004; Associated Press, "Key West considers making tent city for homeless." Naples Daily News. January 24, 2004; Travis James Tritten, "Solutions to homeless problem hard to find." February, 2004; Timothy O’Hara, "Homeless zone will cost city, county." February 5, 2004; Timothy O’Hara, "City signals it’s time to go." February 29, 2004; Associated Press, "Key West trying to deal with its homeless: The city is starting to evict the homeless from endangered wetlands." Gainesville Sun, March 8, 2004; Timothy O’Hara, "Police plan to roust homeless at sunrise." March 10, 2004; Timothy O’Hara, "Homeless ousted; advocates upset." March 11, 2004; Travis Tritten and Timothy O’Hara, "Homeless safe zone a joint project." March 17, 2004; Associated Press, "Monroe OK's a homeless 'safe zone.'" The Miami Herald. March 21, 2004.

Kissimmee, Florida

Associated Press, "Police, dressed as homeless, catch drivers running red lights." The Miami Herald. May 22, 2003; Steven Gray, "Beeping, braking carts provide a challenge for would-be thieves." Wall Street Journal. August 2, 2004.

Lakewood, Colorado

Paola Farer, "Lakewood puts limits on panhandling." 9NEWS. August 9, 2003; Janet Young, City Attorney, letter to Mayor Steve Burkholder, "Regulation of Aggressive Begging." June 9, 2004; Charley Able, "Pushy panhandling ban: Lakewood eyeing ordinance to curb aggressive behavior." Rocky Mountain News. August 9, 2004.

Las Vegas, Nevada

Stephen Curran, "Homeless sweeps replaced with ‘intervention’: Police action gives way to health, safety concerns." The Las Vegas Sun. May 10, 2004; "Longer vagrancy jail time criticized." Las Vegas Review-Journal. July 8, 2004; Timothy Pratt, "LV’s crackdown on homeless criticized." Las Vegas Sun. July 8, 2004; "Sin City Has Become Homeless City." Fox News. August 4, 2004; Diedre Pike, "On the run: Vegas teens are leaving home in record numbers, subjecting themselves to prostitution, drugs and alcohol for survival." Las Vegas City Life. August 11, 2004.

Lawrence, Kansas

Dave Ranney, "Bulldozed campsites leave homeless irked; City gave squatters 10 minutes to vacate parks." Lawrence Journal-World. August 13, 2004; Dave Ranney, "Homeless camp uprooted, this time with warning." Lawrence Journal-World. August 19, 2004.

Lexington, Kentucky

Carol Stephenson, Salvation Army.

Lexington Township, Michigan

Chris Sebastion, "Park fight heading to Supreme Court: Lexington Township camping issue also faces new circuit court suit." The Times Herald. August 10, 2004.

Lihue, Hawaii

Anthony Sommer, "Evicted homeless got ‘motivated,’ mayor says." Honolulu Star-Bulletin. November 22, 2003.

Little Rock, Arkansas

Patty Lindeman, Hunger Free Arkansas; Sandra Wilson, Arkansas Supportive Housing Network; Christina, Muñoz, "Counting the homeless in Little Rock." KATV Channel 7. February 26, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "Not sweet but still home, camps face city closure: Homeless advocates criticize LR crackdown." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. May 29, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "Homeless camp closings on hold until details set." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. June 19, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "LR still wants to shut down vagrants’ sites: Advocates for homeless ask city to wait 90 days." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. July 1, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "Group calls for delay of LR homeless camp closings." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. July 16, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "Plan to clear homeless sites altered: LR authorities cancel scheduled sweep, start search for other solutions." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. August 3, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "LR relents, won't give a bum's rush to homeless." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. August 6, 2004; "Central Arkansas Homeless Up 15% From Three Years Ago." KATV. August 11, 2004; David Hammer, "Little Rock considers sweep of homeless." The Mercury News. August 16, 2004; "No BUMS Allowed." Arkansas Times. August 26, 2004; Andy Davis, "City needs to ‘get rid of’ camps for homeless, LR mayor says." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. September 14, 2004. Andrew DeMillo, "Chronic homelessness at 40%, UALR study says." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. September 18, 2004; Letter to May Jim Dailey from the National Law Center on Homelessness & Poverty. September 17, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "NLR Park to become brief oasis for needy." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. September 22, 2004; Andrew DeMillo, "120 hear homelessness governable, so end it." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. September 23, 2004; Sarah Fox, "Will LR earn 'meanest' tag on homeless." Arkansas Democrat-Gazette. September 25, 2004

Long Beach, California

Mike Giard, Christian Outreach Appeal; David Rogers, "L.B. park homeless mecca controversial: Business owners say volunteer effort detracts from downtown." Long Beach Press Telegram. August 22, 2004.

Longmont, Colorado

"City Bans Roadside Begging." Daily Camera/Clean & Safe Worldwide. December 19, 2003.

Longview, Washington

Tony Lystra, Council Outlaws Dumpster Diving." The Daily News. February, 2004.

Los Angeles, California

Frank Tamborello, Los Angeles Coalition to End Hunger and Homelessness. Associated Press, "News in brief from around California." San Jose Mercury News. October 25, 2003; Andrew Blankstein, "City Bulldozes Homeless Camp." Los Angeles Times. December 30, 2003; Associated Press, "L.A. jail inmates with medical issues sleep on floors." Contra Costa Times. August 16, 2004; "Los Angeles Inmates With Medical Problems Sleep On Floors." KABC/ August 17, 2004; Jessica Garrison, "New Curbs on Homeless Supported." Los Angeles Times. September 15, 2004.

Louisville, Kentucky

Marlene Gordon, Coalition for the Homeless Executive Director.

Madison, Wisconsin

Judith Wilcox, Homeless Shelter Coordinator, and State Division of Housing; Steven Gray, "Beeping, braking carts provide a challenge for would-be thieves." Wall Street Journal. August 2, 2004; Judith Davidoff, "ReachOut touches lives. Program works for State Street homeless, addicts." The Capital Times. September 17, 2004.

Manchester, New Hampshire

Cindy Carlson, Under the Bridge.

Martinsburg, West Virginia

Candice Bosely, "Chief: Business owners helping combat crime downtown." The Herald-Mail. August 10, 2004.

Memphis, Tennessee

Constance Graham, Greater Memphis Interagency Coalition for the Homeless.

Miami, Florida

Dan Ricker, "Feeding homeless on the street opposed." The Miami Herald. May 24, 2004; "Miami Pushes To Stop Feeding Homeless In Streets: City Wants Homeless Fed At Official Facilities Only." Local10. May 24, 2004.

Middletown, Connecticut

Anita Zitka, "Beds run short at city’s only shelter." Middletown Press. August 17, 2004; Symon Twarog, "No longer just killing time." The Middletown Press. August 18, 2004; Symon Twarog, "An Uncommon Journey." The Middletown Press. August 18, 2004; Symon Twarog, "Long, Lonely Journey." The Middletown Press. August 18, 2004.

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Holly Gardemier, Guest House of Milwaukee; Joel Volk, Community Advocates.

Minneapolis, Minnesota

Margaret Hastings, Homeless Advocate. Legal Aid Society of Minneapolis, letter to Council Member Dan Niziolek, "Begging Loitering Ordinance Changes." May 18, 2004; Margaret Zack, "Begging is ruled protected speech: A Hennepin judge decided in favor of a homeless man who challenged a Minneapolis ordinance." Star Tribune. March 31, 2004.

Mobile, Alabama

Dan Williams, Executive Director, Homeless Coalition of the Gulf Coast, Inc.

Modesto, California

J.N. Sbranti, "Homeless get the word from police: Warnings about panhandling to stop." The Modesto Bee. August 21, 2003; Rosalio Ahumada, "Modestans air concerns about downtown area." The Modesto Bee. August 3, 2004; Rosalio Ahumada, "Activist Dee Allen of San Francisco marches through Modesto to protest the treatment of homeless here." The Modesto Bee. August 22, 2004.

Myrtle Beach, South Carolina

The Associated Press, "Myrtle Beach starts issuing tickets under new loitering law." The Herald-Tribune. August 22. 2004.

Naples, Florida

Associated Press, "Homeless Naples Man gets 12 years in prison for spitting on deputy." Sun-Sentinel. August 16, 2003.

Nashville, Tennessee

Matthew Leber, Nashville Peace and Justice Center. Judith R. Tackett, "Proposal Would End Begging Downtown." The City Paper. September 1, 2004; John Spragens, "Handling Panhandling. Sweeping the Streets of Handout Seekers is One Way to Deal with the Problem–But is it the Best Way?" The Nashville Scene. September 1, 2004; Holly Edwards, "Panhandling Proposal Targets Specific Areas." Tennessean. September 2, 2004; "Reaction to the Proposal to Restrict Panhandling," Tennessean. September 2, 2004; Holly Edwards, "Plan to Outlaw Beggars Draws Strong Reaction." Tennessean. September 2, 2004.

New Orleans, Louisiana

Michael Perlstein, "Police change policy on homeless." The Times-Picayune. November 8, 2003; Steve Cannizaro, "Corpse near ferry landing identified." The Times-Picayune. July 29, 2004.

New York City, New York

Lynn Lewis, Co-director, Picture the Homeless; John Jones and Jean Rice, leaders, Civil Rights Campaign, Picture the Homeless; United Press International, "Homeless asked to move from convention site." Washington Times. June 16, 2004; Associated Press, "Officer On Trial for Refusing to Arrest Homeless Man" WDSU. July 29, 2004; "Homeless To Make Way for GOP Convention." 1010 WINS. August 8, 2004; "Enforcing the Law is Not Optional." New York Post. August 17, 2004.

North Las Vegas, Nevada

Stacy J. Willis, "Sheriff: What kind of man does it take to be the top cop in a town like this, at a time like this." Las Vegas Weekly. June 15, 2004; Steven Gray, "Beeping, braking carts provide a challenge for would-be thieves." Wall Street Journal. August 2, 2004.

Norwalk, Connecticut

Brian Lockhart, "Knopp meets on shelter concerns." The Stamford Advocate. August 26, 2004.

Oakland, California

Steve Krank, Director, Men’s Drop-in Center.

Ogden, Utah

Cathy McKitrick, "Beer-sale issues coming to a head: Ogden considers ban today on 25th Street sales of carry-out beer." Standard Net August 17, 2004; "City Council Tables Proposed Ban on Beer Sales." 5 KSL TV. August 18, 2004; Derek P. Jenson, "City Council delays vote: The two markets say they are being targeted and point to the fact that nearby Wal-Mart would be able to keep its license." The Salt Lake Tribune. August 18, 2004; Associated Press, "City Council tables proposed ban on convenience store beer sales on 25th Street." KUTV. August 18, 2004; Cathy McKitrick, "Beer-to-go still an option in Ogden: City Council tables Historic 25th Street ban." StandardNet. August 18, 2004.

Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

Dan Straughan, Oklahoma Homeless Alliance.

Olympia, Washington

Selena Kilmoyer, Bread and Roses; Kathy George, "Homeless face violent life on streets: Activists step up campaign against 'hate' attacks." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. June 9, 2003.

Omaha, Nebraska

Mike Saklar, Siena Francis House; Del Bomberger, "Midlands Voices: Homeless deserve more than effort to hide them." Omaha World-Herald. July 20, 2004.

Orlando, Florida

Melissa Harris, "Police target panhandlers who have crossed the line." Orlando-Sentinel. September 3, 2003.

Pahrump, Nevada

Mark Waite, "So-called anti-homeless law enacted." Pahrump Valley Times. November 28, 2003.

Palm Bay, Florida

J.D. Gallup, "Homeless left homeless: Police clear away camps that sheltered dozen people." Florida Today. July 7, 2004; "Rousting Homelessness: Providing shelter for those in need is an uphill battle for area agencies." Florida Today. July 16, 2004.

Pasadena, California

Marshall Allen, "Shelter’s expansion still opposed: Despite improvement, neighbors still oppose proposed expansion." Pasadena Star-News. August 22, 2004; Marshall Allen, "Shelter granted permit to expand." Pasadena Star-News. August 25, 2004.

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Kevin Fagan, "The city that knows how — Philly: Effort stems tide of homelessness -- can S.F. learn from it?" S. F.Chronicle/Homeless Persons Network. June 13, 2004. Stephen Salisbury, "Park is a homeless hot spot." Philadelphia Inquirer. September 25, 2004.

Phoenix, Arizona

Louisa Stark, Phoenix Consortium for the Homeless; "Panhandlers: Down and Out of Line." KPHO Phoenix. August 18, 2004.

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

"Pittsburgh police try to clear out tent city from Clemente bridge." Street Roots. January 16, 2004; Richard Byrne Reilly, "Owners lament food for vagrants." Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. July 23, 2004; Jonathan D. Silver, "Market Square sees first steps in cleanup." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. August 12, 2004.

Plymouth, Massachusetts

Christine Wallgren, "Shelter's closing hits home for 3 men." The Boston Globe. August 22, 2004.

Pontiac, Michigan

Willie Redmond, New Bethel Outreach Shelter.

Portland, Maine

Steve Houston, Preble St. Resource Center Consumer Advocacy Project.

Portland, Oregon

Sam Louie and Antonia Giedwoyn, "Homeless Portland residents protest city’s camping ban." KGW Channel 8; Israel Bayer, "Defendant victorious against ‘unconstitutional’ sit-lie law." Street Roots. June, 2004; Israel Bayer, "The Portland Business Alliance tries to curb panhandling with a voucher program." Street Roots. June 10, 2004; Scott Learn, "Homeless groups give fake tickets to those camped for the Grand Floral Parade to show ordinance’s effect." The Oregonian. June 12, 2004; Ashbel Green, "Sidewalk-blocking ban rejected." The Oregonian. June 24, 2004; Israel Bayer, "City to rewrite troublesome obstructions-as-nuisance ordinance." Street Roots. July 9, 2004; Erik Sten, "Buddy, can you spare a place to live?" The Oregonian. August 8, 2004.

Portsmouth, New Hampshire

Nancy Cicco, "’City’ for the homeless- Those dismissed by shelter for failing to follow the rules gather in the woods nearby." Seacoastonline. August 25, 2004.

Providence, Rhode Island

Noreen Shawcross, Rhode Island Coalition for the Homeless Executive Director; Amanda Milkovits, " Providence police tell residents of tent city to move on." The Providence Journal. October 3, 2003; Amanda Milkovits, "Homeless couple thanks police officer who helped." The Providence Journal. October 9, 2003; Jennifer Levitz and Cathleen F. Crowlely, "In merciless weather, a compassionate roundup." The Providence Journal. January 17, 2004.

Raleigh, North Carolina

Thomas McDonald, "Officers rebuked for raid on camp." The News & Observer. June 26, 2004; Ken Smith, "Raleigh Police Change Policy after Incident At Homeless Camp." WRAL. June 28, 2004; "City to Comment on New Police Policy on Homeless Camps." WRAL. July 27, 2004; Darla Miles, "New Storefront Signs in Downtown Raleigh Discourage Panhandling." ABC 11 Eyewitness News. August 10, 2004.

Rapid City, South Dakota

"Rapid City business owners work to end panhandling." The Rapid City Journal. November 1, 2003.

Redondo Beach, California

Associated Press, "Redondo Beach police arrests day laborers in crackdown." Los Angeles Times. October 22, 2004.

Reno, Nevada

Anonymous by request, because of the tense relations in the city at this time; The Associated Press, "Reno police launch anti-crime program." Las Vegas Review-Journal. November 15, 2003; Anjeanette Damon, "Reno business owners sue over homeless shelter." Reno Gazette-Journal. March 20, 2004.

Richmond, Virginia

Mark Leslie, Homeless Advocate.

Roanoke, Virginia

Laurence Hammack, "Woman convicted for falling asleep on Roanoke bench." The Roanoke Times. October 3, 2003.

Rochester, New York

"First Arrests for Begging Ban." WROC-TV. August 5, 2004; "New city law that prohibits panhandling puts a damper on fundraiser." WHEC TV-10. August 27, 2004.

Sacramento, California

Paula Lomazzi. Sacramento Homeless Organizing Committee; Shaun Hallett, "Homeless youth lands in jail for voicing opinion." Street Breeze. Volume 1, Issue 1, 2003; Walt Wiley, "A 'shepherd' now protects church steps' homeless." The Sacramento Bee. June 18, 2004;

Salem, Oregon

Cara Roberts Murez, "Panhandling near traffic breaks law." Statesman Journal. October 16, 2003; Kevin Hays, "Panhandling becoming a growing problem in Salem." KATU Salem News. July 19, 2004; "The Listening Post: Tough times in Salem." Statesman Journal. August 19, 2004; "We can’t ignore those displaced by development." Statesman Journal. August 19, 2004; C.A. Fisher, "Volunteer patrol area parks." Statesman Journal. August 26, 2004.

Salt Lake City, Utah

Shane Johnson, "Street Hassles: Businesses press cops to take futile action against the marginalized." Salt Lake City Weekly. December 25, 2003; Jamie Gadette, "Read Between the Lines: New guidelines spark debate over helping the homeless." Salt Lake City Weekly. June 3, 2004; Elizabeth Neff, "Taking justice to the homeless." The Salt Lake Tribune. June 25, 2004.

San Antonio, Texas

Ana M Novoa, Professor of Law, Director, Clinical Program, St. Mary's University School of Law; Greg Jefferson, "Push to clean up downtown’s image; Looking for change." San Antonio Express-News. April 13, 2004; Jim Forsyth, "’Compassion Zone’ Proposal Gets Cool Reaction." WOAI: San Antonio/News. August 13, 2004.

San Bernardino, California

Stephen Wall, "Day Laborers ask nonprofit for help against recent sidewalk citations." San Bernardino Sun. September 27, 2004.

San Diego, California

Sandy A. Maynes, San Diego Coalition for the Homeless; "Business pays to remove beggars." San Diego Union-Tribune/Clean and Safe Worldwide. August 1, 2003; Ronald W. Powell, "San Diego activist asks council for homeless safe site." San Diego Union-Tribune. October 15, 2004; Ronald W. Powell, "Man wants police to change policies." San Diego Union-Tribune. October 23, 2004; Ronald W. Powell, "Longtime advocate for homeless rights ends his 19-day fast." San Diego Union-Tribune. October 30, 2004.

San Francisco, California

L.S. Wilson Jr., Coalition on Homelessness in San Francisco; Kevin Fagan, "New Panhandling Law — S.F. to take it easy, City says it will use persuasion, not jail" San Francisco Chronicle. May 25, 2004; "State High Court Leaves ‘Care Not Cash’ Program in Place." KTVU. July 21, 2004; "Eye on Homeless Civil Rights" Coalition on Homelessness Civil Rights Project, San Francisco; "The Homeless Strain: Part 1." KGO-TV/DT. August 5, 2004; "The Homeless Strain: Part 2." KGO-TV/DT. August 5, 2004; "The Homeless Strain: Part 3." KGO-TV/DT. August 6, 2004; Kevin Fagan, "Panhandlers curbed on Market, Van Ness. Outreach workers, police mobilized under Prop. M." San Francisco Chronicle. October 16, 2004.

San Jose, California

Michelle Covert, Community Outreach Partnership Center; John Holland, Inn Vision.

San Juan, Puerto Rico

"Accused Criminalization of the Homeless Ripped." The San Juan Star. April 23, 2004.

Santa Barbara, California

Chuck Shultz, "Man with disabilities challenging tickets for RV parking." Santa Barbara News-Press. February 3, 2004; William Overend. Title unknown. Los AngelesTimes. May 23, 2004.

Santa Cruz, California

Becky Johnson, Homeless United for Friendship & Freedom; Becky Johnson, "Mayor Disrupts Council; Meeting and has Peaceful Protest Stopped." Santa Cruz Independent Media Center. February 4, 2004.

Sarasota, Florida

Sandy Baar, Executive Director, Sarasota County Coalition for the Homeless, Inc; Mitra Malek, "Proposal would give homeless few options; Bradenton considers making sleeping outside without permission illegal." Sarasota Herald-Tribune. January 14, 2004; Patty Allen-Jones, "Sarasota officials pass special-event permit ordinance." Sarasota Herald-Tribune. August 10, 2004.

Savannah, Georgia

Lynne Griever, Georgia Task Force for the Homeless, Metro Atlanta Task Force.

Scottsdale, Arizona

Mark Scarp, "Scottsdale thrives on pie in face." East Valley Tribune. July 21, 2004.

Seattle, Washington

Joe Martin, social worker and Seattle Displacement Coalition; John Fox, Seattle Displacement Coalition; Danny Westneat, "Serving up bowls of hypocracy." The Seattle Times. August 11, 2004; Bob Young, "Mayor reverses decision on homeless meal program." The Seattle Times. August 11, 2004; Bob Young, "Free-meal programs go back to plaza." The Seattle Times. August 12, 2004; "Dinner at the park: it's not about food." The Seattle Times. August 13, 2004; Adam Holdorf, "A Meal Deal. Seattle mayor reverses his shutdown of the evening meal program." Spare Change News. September 30–October 13, 2004.

Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Susan Campbell, Homeless Advocate.

Sonoma County, California

Ernie Carpenter, "Homelessness gets more expensive." The Press Democrat. September 24, 2004.

South Lake Tahoe, California

Gregory Crofton, "Homeless numbers in South Lake Tahoe largely a mystery." Nevada Appeal. July 26, 2004; Gregory Crofton, "Officers make regular sweeps through illegal camp areas." Tahoe Daily Tribune. July 26, 2004; Jack Carrerow, "Illegal campers keep fire threat high." North Lake Tahoe Bonanza. August 4, 2004.

Spokane, Washington

Associated Press, "Homeless leave tent city." Washington Times. July 9, 2004; "Mayor cracks down on homeless camp." USA Today. July 9, 2004; "Camping Ordinance Becomes Law, Homeless Cry Foul." KXLY. August 10, 2004. "Homeless Move From City Hall." KXLY. August 12, 2004; Tyler Martin, "Camping Out. Spokane’s ordinance sparks debates between homeless, city officials." Real Change. September 16–29, 2004.

Springfield, Massachusetts

Peter Goonan, "Homeless camp still an eyesore." The Republican. July 20, 2004; Peter Goonan, ‘Homeless tents full of violations." The Republican. July 24, 2004; Mary Ellen O'Shea, "Homeless camp violations corrected." The Republican. July 27, 2004; James Harrison, "Home is NOT a tent." MassLive. July 27, 2004; Peter Goonan, "Homeless need better solution." The Republican. August 21, 2004.

St. Augustine, Florida

Jean Harden, Emergency Services and Homeless Coalition of St. John’s County, Inc.

St. George, Utah

Rachel Olsen, "Police clear out transient camps near river." The Spectrum. July 29, 2004;

Ed Kociela, "Southern Utah's homeless: For many, one tragic event can lead to life on the streets." The Spectrum. August 22, 2004; Ed Kociela, "Solution seems elusive for problem." The Spectrum. August 22, 2004.

St. Louis, Missouri

Gregory Vogelweid, St. Patrick’s Center. Jeremy Kohler, "City’s handling of homeless is challenged." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. September 22, 2004; Jeremy Kohler and Tim "O’Neil, "Judge strikes down community court." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. September 23, 2004; Associated Press, "St. Louis concedes cleanup detail was wrong for homeless." The Columbia Daily Tribune. September 24, 2004; Tim O"Neil, "Cleanup detail was wrong, city says." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. September 24, 2004; Betsy Taylor, "Judge blocks removing homeless off the streets without cause." Associated Press. October 15, 2004.

St. Paul, Minnesota

Fred Woods, Program Director, Dorothy Day Center.

St. Petersburg, Florida

Genessa Poth, "Homeless brace for soliciting rules: As the city considers banning solicitors from public roads, homeless residents say the new rules would further limit their options." St. Petersburg Times. June 30, 2004.

Suffolk, Virginia

John-Henry Doucette, "Suffolk looks into the prospect of restricting panhandling." The Virginian-Pilot. August 13, 2004; John-Henry Doucette, "Mixed opinions greet Suffolk council’s talk of panhandling rules." The Virginian-Pilot. September 1, 2004; Edward Lebow, "Suffolk postpones voting on new panhandling ordinance." The Daily Press. September 2, 2004.

Syracuse, New York

"Some panhandlers want more than food." News 10 Now. November 11, 2003;

Heidi Gitzen, "Business owners advocate ban on pushy panhandling tactics." The Daily Orange. December 2, 2003.

Tacoma, Washington

Jason Hagey, "Ready or not, Pierce County might get tent city for the homeless." The News Tribune. June 20, 2004; Jason Hagey, "Winter might beat tent city to town." The News Tribune. July 25, 2004; Kathleen Merryman, "Hard-working coalition outlines strategies to deal with the homeless." The News Tribune. August 16, 2004.

Tallahassee, Florida

Todd Wright, "Ordinance would end road fund-raisers: Move would alter how some groups solicit donations." Tallahassee Democrat. July 8, 2004; Melanie Yeager, "Car wash cleans up for charity: Firefighters won’t let getting booted off streets dampen their MDA drive." Tallahassee Democrat. July 25, 2004; Dee Causseaux, "Street solicitations should not be banned." Tallahassee Democrat. August 8, 2004; Aaron Richard, "Hope can grow on a street corner." Tallahassee Democrat. August 9, 2004.

Tampa, Florida

Florida Coalition for the Homeless; Valerie Kalfrin, "Group Risks Arrest To Feed Homeless in City Park: Food Not Bombs Plans Court Protest." Tampa Tribune. April 5, 2004; Thomas Krause and Kathy Steel, "Three Arrested During ‘Picnic’ with Homeless in Park." Tampa Tribune. April 19, 2004.

Tempe, Arizona

Amanda Keim, "Activists hold sit-in on Mill Ave." The State Press. February 23, 2004.

Toledo, Ohio

Maja Reed, Focus Toledo.

Trenton, New Jersey

Denise Micai, Mercer County Board of Social Services; "14-Day Mercer County Archive: Cracking down on panhandlers" The Times. April 13, 2004.

Tucson, Arizona

Mark Sussman, "Tucson's homeless get a bum rap." Arizona Daily Wildcat, March 8, 2004.

Tulsa, Oklahoma

Sandra Holden, Day Center.

Union City, California

Thaai Walker, "Camper culture, cops clash at Wal-Mart." The Mercury News. August 9, 2004.

Valdosta, Georgia

Jane Osborn, Associate Director, 211 and Chair, South Georgia Coalition To End Homelessness.

Venice, California

Cindy Frazier, "Grass Roots committee distances itself from flier urging homeless in vehicles ‘not to cop plea’." The Argonaut. March 18, 2004.

Virginia Beach, Virginia

Deborah Maloney, Director, Volunteers of America; Ches. Inc; The Lighthouse Center.

Washington, District of Columbia

Anne-Marie Staudenmaier, Attorney at the Washington Legal Clinic for the Homeless.

Woodinville, Washington

City of Woodinville, "Understanding Temporary Shelter for the Homeless;" Brad Wong, "Woodinville homeless camp ruled out." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. July 14, 2004; "Tent City 4 Timeline." King County Journal. August 5, 2004; Matthew Rodriguez, "Tent-city plan stirs fears." Seattle Times. August 6, 2004; Leslie Fulbright, "City council decides on industrial site for tent city." Seattle Times. August 11, 2004; Danny Westneat, "Serving up bowls of hypocrisy." The Seattle Times. August 11, 2004; "Homeless camp accepts Woodinville's site offer." Seattle Post Intelligencer. August 12, 2004; Nick Perry, "Bothell tent city pulls up stakes for Woodinville." The Seattle Times. August 12, 2004; Jeff Switzer, "Citizens’ report finds a need for tent cities." King County Journal. August 14, 2004; Diane Brooks, "Tent city moves without flap; volunteers help about 80 relocate." The Seattle Times. August 15, 2004; "Tent cities work." Seattle Post-Intelligencer. August 17, 2004; Jeanette Knutson, "Business brings suit against Woodinville, Share/Wheel over Tent City location." Northwest News. August 23, 2004; Jessica Delos Reyes, "Woodinville City Council clarifies rules on tent city." The Seattle Times. August 24, 2004; Jessica Delos Reyes, "Temporary encampments are put on hold in Bothell." Seattle Times. September 9, 2004; Jessica Delos Reyes, "Woodinville tent city survives challenge." Seattle Times. September 11, 2004; Kelly Kearsley, "Tent may get longer stay, council says." Seattle Times. September 21, 2004; Kelly Kearsley, "Tent-city homeless say Woodinville residents neighborly." Seattle Times. October 5, 2004; Kelly Kearsley, "Woodville tent city allowed to stay until Nov. 22." Seattle Times. October 15, 2004.

Full report in .pdf form | Introduction | Background | Methodology | Problem Statement/Consequences of Criminalization | Model Programs | Conclusions & Recommendations | The Cities Included in this Report | Meanest Cities | Narratives of the Meanest Cities | Narratives of the Other Cities | Prohibited Conduct Chart | Survey Questions | Incident Report Form: English & Incident Report Form: Spanish | Sources