online partners:


A Dream Denied:
The Criminalization of Homelessness in U.S. Cities

Sources for City Narratives

Albany, California
Castillo, Janny. “The Albany Bulb: Disturbing the Ghosts of the Albany Landfill.” Street
            Spirit 1 August 2005.
Zamora, Jim Herron. “ City Clears out 19 Campsites Used by Homeless, Squatters
Returned to Future Park after Bigger Eviction in ’99.” San Francisco Chronicle 26 July 2005.

Albemarle, Virginia
Johnson, Anne. “Albemarle Officials Forbid Begging on Roadways, Medians.” Daily
            Progress 7 July 2005.

Allentown, Pennsylvania
Kraus, Scott. “Allentown Breaks Down ‘Tent City’ Encampment.” The Morning Call 22
February 2005.

Anchorage, Alaska
Shinohara, Rosemary. “Group Leads Homeless Camp Cleanup.” Anchorage Daily News
            30 April 2005.
---. “Liquor Store Owner Works to Establish Legal, Secure Camps for Those in Need.”
             Anchorage Daily News 26 June 2005.

Ashland, Oregon
Darling, John. “Ashland Cool to Homeless Camp Idea.” Mail Tribune 19 November

Atlanta, Georgia
Groce, Naomi Sheehan. “Atlanta Officials Continue Campaign against the Homeless.”
World Socialist
. 4 July 2005. <http://>.
Lawson, Selena. “Woodruff Park Prepares for a Makeover.” The GSU Signal 10 January
Tagami, Ty. “Anti-panhandling Law put on Hold.” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 21
            June 2005.
---. “Begging Bill up for Talks.” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 28 June 2005.
---. “Begging Ban back on Table.” The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 13 July 2005.
Talley, Robert E.L. “Panhandlers Leave Visitors Feeling Less than Welcome.”
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution 15 July 2005.

Austin, Texas

“Austin’s Begging Ban Violates Free Speech.” Austin Business Journal 26 July 2005.


Ball, Andrea. “Judge Zaps City Ban on Soliciting Money.” Austin American-Statesman

            26 July 2005.


Baltimore, Maryland

Berman, Dori. “New Baltimore Program Aimed at Curbing Panhandling.” The Daily
Record 27 July 2005. <>.

Berkeley, California
Deihl, Michael. “A Winter of Discontent for Berkeley’s Homeless.” Street Spirit
            November 2004.
Hoge, Patrick. “Carts Stay Cool as City Takes Heat on Storage Policy.” San Francisco
Chronicle 16 November 2004. <>.
James, Karla, et al. “The Legal Rights of Homeless in Berkeley.” Street Spirit May 2005.

Bettendorf, Iowa
Brecht, Tory. “Down, On the Corner.” Quad-City Times 14 December 2004.

Bradenton, Florida
McCann, Tim W. “Arts District Work to Resume.” Bradenton Herald 4 July 2005.


Burlington, Washington

Crichfield, Beverly. “Should Burlington Curb Illegal Camping?” Skagit Valley Herald 7
            August 2005.

Cambridge, Massachusetts
Crittenden, Jules. “Cambridge parents lash out over homeless in parks.” Boston Herald
17 November 2004.
Pfyffer, Julien Pfyffer. “Homeless Forced to Move.” The Daily Free Press 15 September
2005. <>.

Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Shapard, Rob. “Debate over town begging continues despite laws.” The Herald Sun 29 October 2005           

Charlotte, North Carolina
Crouch, Michelle. “Are Rules on Panhandling Effective?” The Charlotte Observer 29 November 2004.
Weir, Kytja. “Sting Targets Uptown Beggars.” The Charlotte Observer 13 November 2004.

Charlottesville, Virginia
Johnson, Annie. “County Eye Ban on Road Soliciting.” The Daily Progress 6 July 2005.            

Cleveland, Ohio

Free Times. “City Charter.” 13 July 2005.
NewsNet5. “City Council to Vote On Law To Criminalize Panhandling.” 12 July 2005.
Perkins, Olivia, et al. “Council Targets Pushy Beggars.” The Plain Dealer 14 July 2005.

Corvallis, Oregon
Nitson, Jennifer. “Judge OKs City’s Ban on Camping.” The Gazette Times 4 January
Culpepper, Virginia
Champion, Allison. “Culpepper Targets ‘Habitual Drunks.’” Culpepper Star Exponent 10
            July 2005.

Dallas, Texas
Blumenthal, Ralph. “Heady days of J.R. and Landry are History in humbled Dallas.”
The New York Times 20 December 2004. <>.
Horner, Kim. “City Tries to get Handle on Homelessness.” The Dallas Morning News
            26 January 2005.
---. “City Razes Homeless Camp Downtown.” The Dallas Morning News 11 May 2005.
Korosec, Thomas. “Dallas Law Cracks Down on Feeding Homeless.” The Houston
            Chronicle 7 August 2005.
Levinthal, Dave. “Idea of Ticketing Change-givers Supported.” Dallas Morning News 25
            August 25 2005.

Denver, Colorado

Denver Post. “Tough Love Needed with Panhandlers.” 24 August 2005.
Gartner, Erin. “Denver Receives Nearly $1 Million to Help Homeless.” CBS4. 25 August
            2005. <>
Prieto, Bianca. “Millions Given to Panhandlers.” Rocky Mountain News. 19 August 2005.
Rivers, Reggie. “Don’t Stop Giving Change to Beggars.” Common Dreams News Center.
            26 August 2005. <>
Steers, Stuart. “Homeless Proposal at Critical Juncture.” Rocky Mountain News. 25
            August 2005.

Des Moines, Iowa

“Panhandling a problem.” WorldNow. 5 May 2005.

Evanston, Illinois

Bowean, Lolly. “City hands out fliers asking people to ignore beggars, Donate to service
agencies instead.” The Chicago Tribune 27 April 2005. <>.
Ferkenhoff, Eric “Panhandling Crackdown Prompts Debate.” The Boston Globe 1 May
            2005. <>.


Forest Park, Illinois

Stern, Seth. “Squatters Evicted from ‘homes’ along Ike.” Forest Park Review 17 August

Fort Lauderdale, Florida           
Renaud, Jean-Paul. “To Reduce Crime Rate, Fort Lauderdale police are Starting Small.”
The South Florida Sun-Sentinel 10 November 2004. <>.
Fort Myers, Florida
NCB2. “Fort Myers: Don’t feed the homeless.” 16 February 2005. <>.

Gainesville, Florida
Kinsey, Troy. “Homeless Advocates Attack Word Choice.” WCJB TV 20 News 9 August
            2005. <>.
---. “Homeless campers spark outrage.” WCJB TV 20 News 18 August 2005.
Swirko, Cindy. “In protest, pie served near City Hall.” The Gainesville Sun 27
November 2004. <>.

Hilo, Hawaii

Thompson, Rod. “Hawaii County Clearing Squatters Off Shoreline.” Honolulu Star-
Bulletin 2 August 2005.  <>.


Honolulu, Hawaii           
Pang, Gordon Y.K. “Advocates to rally for repeal of homeless law.” The Advertiser
Capitol Bureau 12 April 2005. <>.
Reyes,B.J. “Homeless March on State Capitol.” Honolulu Star Bulletin 14 April 2005.

Houston, Texas
Colley, Jenna. “Loitering in the Montrose could become less of a pastime in the near
            future.” Houston Business Journal 17 July 2005.
 “Critics say new Houston hygiene rules target homeless.” American Libraries Online. 29
April 2005. <>.
“Houston Libraries Ban Body Odor, Bathing.” 28 April 2005.

Jacksonville, Florida
“Drinking ban nixed.” The Miami Herald. 11 January 2005.
 “Shelter provide for the homeless Super Bowl week.” WTEV. 11 January 2005.
Rodack, Jordan. “New shelter to operate for Super Bowl.” The Times-Union 28 January
            2005. <>.

Kalamazoo, Michigan
Bassett, Phil. “Homeless group shakes up McDonald’s.” The Kalamazoo Voice 18 April
2005. <>

Kansas City, Missouri
Homeless Services Coalition of Greater Kansas City. “National Homeless Civil Rights
            Organizing Project.” [report] April 2005.
Lake Worth, Florida
Douthat, Bill. “Hiring of day laborers off street targeted.” The Palm Beach Post 27 
January 2005. <>.
Las Vegas, Nevada
“Rethinking homelessness.” The Las Vegas Review-Journal [editorial] 2 December 2004.
“NLV delays homeless sweep.” The Las Vegas Sun 13 April 2005.
Kalil, J.M. “Frank Wright Plaza: Park proves headache for city.” The Las Vegas Review-
            Journal 24 April 2005. <
Morrison, Jane Ann. “City shows holiday spirit by turning back on hundreds of
homeless.” The Las Vegas Review-Journal 27 December 2004. <>.
Pratt, Timothy. “About 125 displaced, Clean sweep made under bridge.” The Las Vegas
            Sun 19 January 2005.
---. “Arrests increase following sweep of homeless camp.” The Las Vegas
Sun 4 March 2005. <>.
---. “City orders sweep of another camp.” The Las Vegas Sun 14 February
2005. <,%20clean%20sweep>.
---. “Homeless evacuated from ‘tent city’ at Sky-Vue park.” The Las Vegas
Sun 21 December 2004. <>.
---. “Man fears citation will put him back on the streets.” The Las Vegas Sun 4 March
2005. <,%20citation>.
---. “Metro to hire liaison to help homeless.” The Las Vegas Sun 29 June 2005.
WRNV4. “Officials attempt to locate housing for homeless displaced during sweep.” 20
            January 2005.

Lawrence, Kansas
Lawhorn, Chad. “Downtown merchants cite homeless menace.” The Lawrence Journal-
World 17 December 2004. <>.
---. “Merchants see value in badge system for homeless.” The Lawrence Journal-World 8
            January 2005. <>.
Ranney, Dave. “Critics: homeless group not listening.” The Lawrence Journal-World 13
February 2005. <>.
---. “Shelter neighbor tells task force homeless must have sanctions.” The
Lawrence Journal-World 5 January 2005. <>.

Long Beach, California
Mellen, Greg. “Homeless vacated from roadside.” The Press Telegram 3 May 2005.

Little Rock, Arkansas
Demillo, Andrew. “Downtown shelter cuts hours again.” The Arkansas Democrat
            Gazette 2 March 2005.
Lindeman, Patty. “Homeless Reports” From Hunger-Free Arkansas.” [e-mail] 11 July

Los Angeles, California
Zahniser, David. “Law targets homeless at libraries.” Copley News Service 8 February
            2005. <>.

Macon, Georgia

Fain, Travis, et al. “Some pushing for Macon panhandling rules.” The Telegraph 18
August 2005. <>.

Memphis, Tennessee
Watson, Mark. “Memphis begging law.” Memphis Commercial Appeal 26 June 2005.
< article/0,1426,MCA_454_3885294,00.html>.

Miami, Florida           
Pellecchia, Mitchell. “Don’t feed the homeless.” The Miami Sun Post 5 November 2004.

Minneapolis, Minnesota
Aamot, Gregg. “Beggars may need licenses in Minneapolis.” Associated Press 27 April
            2005. <>.
Coleman, Nick. “Now a word from the beggars.” The Star Tribune 29 April 2005.
Kaier, Emily. “Film on homeless looks at local laws.” Minnesota Daily 14 December
            2004. <>.
Russell, Scott. “License to beg.” Skyway News 11 April 2005
Wenn, Kristopher. “Illegal to be homeless.” Skyway News 31 January 2005.
 von Sternberg, Bob, et al. “McManus wants poor to get license to beg.” The Star Tribune 28 April 2005. <>.

Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
Ritch, Emma. “City struggles to maintain its services.” The Sun News 10July 2005.


Nashville, Tennessee
“Nashville to crack down on panhandling.” Associated Press 3 May 2005.
“Police and business owners join forces to reduce panhandling.” News Channel 5 2 May
“Police, merchants crack down on panhandling.” News Channel 5 3May 2005.
 Harless, Bill. “Anti-panhandling program set.” The Nashville City Paper 4 May 2005.

Newark, New Jersey
Parry, Wayne. “ACLU, NJ Transit working to guarantee homeless rights at stations.”
Associated Press 29 December 2004. <>.
---. “Patriot Act vs. Homeless.” Associated Press 1July 2005.

New York City, New York
Browne, Paul J. “NYPD keeps homeless from subway tunnels.” The Wall Street Journal
            28 January 2005. <>.
Murphy, William. “Homeless issue catches on fire.” The New York News Day 31 January
2005. < messages/6901?viscount=100>.
Tavernise, Sabrina. “Lacking $2 bus fare to shelter, homeless get a free ride, to jail.” The
New York Times 4 September 2005. <>.

Norwalk, Connecticut

Lockhart, Brian. “Some say proposed rules target poor: anti-loitering, panhandling ordinances under heat.” The Stamford Advocate 27 March 2005.            
<            w&id=188&Itemid=44>.

Orlando, Florida
Billman, Jeffrey, et al. “Hell no, we won’t go: Food not Bombs volunteers have set up
shop in Lake Eola Park.” The Orlando Weekly 12 May 2005. <>.

Palo Alto, California

Dong, Jocelyn. “Can you spare some kindness?” Palo Alto Weekly Online Edition 25
August 2005. <>.

Patchogue Village, New York

“Operation Clean Sweep.” Neighborhood Newspapers 9 November 2005.

Paterson, New Jersey
D’Aurizio, Elaine. “Police clearing out homeless men’s ‘camp.’” New Jersey Media
Group 21 July 2005. <>.

Phoenix, Arizona
Gordon, Phil, et al. “City parks, playgrounds not campsites.” The Arizona Republic 23
            December 2005. <>.
Moravcik, Meghan E. “Council OK’s camping ban for city parks.” The Arizona Republic 
9 December 2004. <>.
Pela, Robrt L. “Don’t Park It: Homeless for the holidays.” The Phoenix News Times 16
December 2005. <>.
Sowers, Carol. “Phoenix may ban day camping in parks.” The Arizona Republic 28
November 2004. <>.

Portland, Oregon
Anderson, Jennifer. “Homeless doesn’t mean hopeless.” Portland Tribune 21 June 2005.
Bodensteiner, Carrie. “Panhandling should not be a crime.” Street Roots 1 June 2005.
Currie, Chuck. “Portland plans to end homelessness (again).” [blog] 20 December 2004.
Hollands, Gretchen. “Poverty does not entitle panhandlers to threaten others.” ­Street
Roots [letter to the editor] 17 June 2005. <>.
Hsuan, Amy. “Portland’s policies to discourage loitering and panhandling backfire,
making the homeless problem seems worse than before.” The Oregonian 17 July 2005. <>.
Jacklet, Ben. “Fences stand in camps’ way.” Portland Tribune 5 July 2005.
Nelson, Genny. “Panhandling is misunderstood.” The Portland Tribune 10May 2005.
Rogoway, Mike, et al. “Killing jolts safer-city efforts.” The Oregonian 24December 2
2005. <>.

Portsmouth, New Hampshire
“Panhandling ordinance needs a hard look from residents.” The Portsmouth Herald 6
            December 2004.             <>.
Alder, Joe. “Homeless camping out near homes draws complaints.” The Portsmouth Herald 29 April 2005. <>.
Dinan, Elizabeth. “Shelter in a cycle of crime.” The Portsmouth Herald 24 July 2005.
Kittredge, Clare. “Portsmouth official says she was accosted.” The Boston Globe 4
November 2004. <>.

Rapid City, South Dakota
Cook, Andrea J. “Store stops meals for homeless.” Rapid City Journal 18 July 2005.

Redondo Beach City, California
“Judge orders halt to day laborer arrests in Redondo Beach.” Associated Press 13
December 2004. <>.

Rochester, New York
Blackwell, Jeffrey. “Law cuts panhandling, but is it constitutional?” Rochester Democrat
and Chronicle 14 April 2005. <>.

Sacramento, California
Jewett, Christina. “Challenge planned on camping ban.” Sacramento Bee 24June 2005.
Wiener, Jocelyn. “Ticket to Nowhere, Citations for homeless stir controversy.”
            Sacramento Bee 24 June 2005. <>.

San Antonio, Texas

Hearn, Tony. “Letter to the Editor.” The Express News 13 February 2005.
Jesse, Laura. “Homeless say targeting them isn’t answer.” The Express News 13 March
2005. <>.

Salt Lake City, Utah
Snyder, Brady. “Salt Lake library attracting homeless.” The Deseret News 9 March 2005.

San Bruno, California

Albert, Mary F. “Drinking ban worries San Bruno homeless.” The San Francisco
Examiner 24 April 2005. <>.


San Diego, California
“Homeless cited for sleeping outside sue city of San Diego.” Street Roots 14 January            2005. <>.

“Homeless offered housing, treatment options.” 21 April 2005.
Moyer, Brad. “San Diego lawsuit charges police with violating the Constitutional rights
            of homeless.” Street Spirit December 2004. <>.
Powell, Ronald. “Lawyers say S.D. police are violating Constitution.” The Union-
Tribune 19 November 2005. <>
Van Deerlin, Lionel. “Still no home for homeless in San Diego?” The Union-Tribune 24
November 2004. <>.

San Francisco, California
Brown, Rory. “Busting beggars.” The San Francisco Bay Guardian 20 July 2005.
Scott, Julia. “Charity vs. Commerce.”  San Mateo County Times 8 Aug 2005.
Soltau, Alison. “Cops suggest one-way ticket for homeless.” The San Francisco
Examiner 7 December 2004. <>.

Santa Cruz, California
Morgan, Terri. “Santa Cruz homeless camp cleared.” Santa Cruz Sentinel 22 October
2005. <>.
Wells, Kate, et al. “Letter to City Council.” December 2004.
San Luis Obispo, California
Welton, Nathan. “Bad B.O. now a no-no at county libraries.” The Tribune 22 February
            2005. <>.

Santa Monica, California
Brown, Margaret. “Santa Monica Starts Massive New Push for Anti-Homeless Laws.”
            L.A. Independent Media 24 March 2005. <>.
Ericksen, Olin. “No More Lunch for Outdoor Meal Programs Under Holbrook Plan.”
Santa Monica News 9 August 2005. <>.
---. “Two years after crackdown, feeding program problems persist.” Santa
            Monica News 17 January 2005.

Sarasota, Florida
Lyons, Tom. “Judge saw flaws in law that made it a cop’s job to hassle homeless.”
Herald Tribune 28 June 2005. <,E&p_text_date-0=6/28/2005%20to%206/28/2005)&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&xcal_useweights=no>.
Rab, Lisa. “Sarasota drafts new no-lodging ordinance.” Herald Tribune 8 February 2005.
Saewitz, Mike. “Judge strikes down ‘no lodging’ law.” Herald Tribune 22 June 2005.

Somerville, Massachusetts

Caywood, Thomas. “Feds cite Somerville officers vagrant vigilance in terror memo.”
Boston Herald 23 August 2005.
Sherman, Mark. “Terrorists may pose as homeless for surveillance, U.S. government
            says.” Associated Press 8 August 2005.

St. Augustine, Florida
Pounder, Lory. “Homeless being shuffled around for Super Bowl.” 31 January 2005.

Sioux Falls, South Dakota
Sanderson, Jennifer. “Proposal targets temp job agencies.” Argus Leader 17 January
            2005. <>.


Spokane, Washington
Martin, Tyker. “Press conference discusses panhandling in Spokane: controversy and
            compromise at the meeting.” [newsletter] The Rising Times April/May 2005.

Springfield, Massachusetts
Plaisance, Mike. “Homeless ‘tent city’ ban considered.” The Republican 2 February
2005. <>.

Stamford, Connecticut
Sullivan, Andrew. “Under the bridge: DOT sweeps out camp made by homeless men.”
            The Advocate 31 January 2005.

St. Louis, MO

“Lawsuit expands as city plans new homeless center.” Associated Press 2 July 2005.
O’Neil, Tom. “Homeless demand that city provide more services.” St. Louis Post-
            Dispatch 5 November 2005.
Salter, Jim. “Settlement reached in suit over sweep of homeless.” Associated Press 21
October 2005. <>.
Shinkle, Peter. “City settles lawsuit brought by homeless.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch 13
October 2005. <>.

Newark, New Jersey
“Homeless man sues NJ Transit.” Philadelphia Daily News 15 March 2005.
“Patriot Act vs. homeless.” Seattle Times 1 July 2005.
Parry, Wayne. “Homeless man sues bus company alleging denial of service.” Associated
            Press 26 April 2005. <

Tracy, California
Huang, Brenda. “Police target shopping cart thieves.” Glenn Moore/Tracy Press 12 May
            2005. <>.

Ukiah, California
Anderson, Glenda. “Ukiah’s transients vanish: City’s new ordinances barring
panhandling, illegal camping virtually clear the streets.” The Press Democrat 5 March 2005.

Ventura, California
Clerici, Kevin. “Homeless forced out.” Ventura County Star 28November 2004.
Devine, Kim. “Criminalization of Homelessness in Ventura, CA.” [e-mail] 13 July 2005.

Wahiawa, Hawaii
KITV. “DOT continues homeless eviction sweep.” 25 February 2005.

Washington, DC
Roarty, Megan. “Confronting homelessness.” The George Washington Hachet 31January

Wichita, Kansas
Finger, Stan. “While police plan to crackdown on temporary camps, calls increase for all-
            day shelter.” The Wichita Eagle 22 July 2005. <

Woodstock, Illinois
Millard, Eileen. “Square merchants ask for help with vagrants.” The Woodstock
            Independent 5 April 2005. <http://www.inde-

HOME | FULL REPORT (pdf) | Acknowledgements | Executive Summary | I. Trends in the Criminalization of Homelessness | II. Criminalization Measures Violate Constitutional Rights | III. Criminalization Measures Violate Human Rights Norms | IV. Constructive Alternatives to Criminalization | V. T op 20 Meanest Cities | VI. Meanest Cities’ Narratives | VII. Other Cities’ Narratives | VIII. CASES: Challenges to Restrictions on Sleeping, Camping, Sitting or Storing Property in Public Place [FEDERAL] [STATE] | Challenges to Anti-Begging, Anti-Soliciting and Anti-Peddling Laws | Challenges to Vagrancy, Loitering and Curfew Laws | Challenges to Restrictions on Feedings | Miscellaneous | IX. Prohibited Conduct Chart | X. APPENDIX:Survey Questions | Sample Know Your Rights Card | Sources for City Narratives |